); hence the term "Apocrypha" was not applied to these books, but to such writings as Enoch, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, etc. Copyright © 2021, Bible Study Tools. Apocalypse of Adam is a Greek fragment described by James, l.c. Apocrypha (concealed, hidden).Old Testament Apocrypha._The collection of books to which this term is popularly applied includes the following (the order given is that in which they stand in the English version); I. (A similar English work to that edited by Kautzsch is now passing through the (Oxford) press, Dr. R. H. Charles being the editor, the writer of this article being one of the contributors.). Noxot God is our neighbor = kataphatic theology Supporter. 2 Col 12:2 ). 1 Esdras is virtually identical to Ezra in the Hebrew bible (i.e. The canon of the Church included the books which are contained in the Greek Bible but not in the Hebrew (see the list below, § III. Origen (died 253) held that we ought to discriminate between books called "apocryphal," some such having to be firmly rejected as teaching what is contrary to the Scriptures. The word “apocrypha” comes from the Greek word meaning "hidden" or "secret." To this class of writings belong in particular those designated Apocalyptic (see APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE), and it will be seen as thus employed that apokruphos has virtually the meaning of the Greek esoterikos. Now it was felt that many if not most of the religious writings which came in the end of the 2nd century to be called "apocryphal" in a disparaging sense had their origin among heretical sects like the Gnostics, and that they had never commanded the approval of the great bulk of the churches. 9-11 in the above list); (e) The Epistle of Jeremy (usually appended to Baruch); (a) Book of Baruch (sometimes classed with prophetic books, sometimes with Apocalypses); (b) Tobit; (c) Judith. But there is a "New" as well as an "Old" Testament Apocrypha consisting of gospels, epistles, etc. In Hellenistic Greek as represented by the Septuagint and the New Testament there is no essential departure from classical usage. Many of them read into the canonical writings mystic meanings, and embodied those meanings in special books, these last becoming esoteric literature in themselves: and as in the case of apocalyptic writings, this esoteric literature was more revered than the Bible itself. Second Maccabees is more openly theological and affirms such ideas as the glories of martyrdom, the sufferings of the martyr as being expiatory for the sins of the nation, the resurrection of the body, prayer for the dead, and the intercession of the saints. Our Lord and his apostles confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish canon, which was the same in all respects as we now have it. occurs in the above phrase means "to store away," "to remove from view"--of things in themselves sacred or precious. The best editions of the Septuagint are those by Tischendorf revised by E. Nestle (1887); and Swete (1895-99 and later editions). 342-420) used the word to indicate the books that were not part of the Jewish Bible, the Tanakh, but were included in the Greek Septuagint Bible. In the Middle Ages, under the influence of Reuchlin (died 1532)--great scholar and Reformer--Hebrew came to be studied and the Old Testament read in its original language. the Apocalyptic Ezra (Esdras), is absent from the Septuagint, from Jerome's version, and also from Luther's Bible, but it occurs in the Vulgate and in the English and other modern versions of the Apocrypha. During the Nicene period, and even earlier, sacred books were divided by Christian teachers into three classes: (2) books that could be read privately, but not in public; (3) books that were not to be read at all. The early Christian church debated the status of the Apocrypha / Deuterocanonicals, but few early Christians believed they belonged in the canon of Scripture. But the evidence is against so early a use of the term in this--soon to be its prevailing--sense. The Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, placed after Daniel 3:23, is a prayer of trust in God offered up by Azariah (i.e., Abednego — Dan 1:7 ) and his companions (Shadrach and Meshach) in the fiery furnace. The Greek apocrypha cannot therefore be a rendering of the Hebrew expression. Judith; V. The rest of the chapters of the book of Esther, which are found neither in the Hebrew nor in the Chaldee; VI. Jer 36:4-8 ), extols the virtues of Wisdom, which is identified with the Law. Also spelled Chilkiya. Three features in these books stand out. verb) 1. General Editor. But it never has in classical Greek any other sense. Bibliography Information (see The Century Bible, Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther, 294f). The Prayer of Manasses king of Judah; XIII. Though it is generally true that the Apocrypha is the excess of the Greek (Septuagint) and Latin (Jerome, Vulgate) over the Hebrew Bibles (the Masoretic Text), the statement needs qualification. The authors of these so-called apocryphal books being unknown, it was sought to gain respect for these writers by tacking onto them well-known names, so that, particularly in the western church, "apocryphal" came to be almost synonymous with "pseudepigraphical." Critical editions of the Apocrypha have been issued by A. Fabricius (Hamburg, 1722-23); Apel (ib 1804) and a very valuable edition by O. T. Fritzsche (Leipzig, 1871) which includes the Latin version of the Apocalyptic Esdras--without the missing fragment. apocryphal definition: 1. He was followed in this by Rufinus (died circa 410), in turns Jerome's friend and adversary, as he had been anticipated by Irenaeus. ). they were of an esoteric character. It is commonly used to refer to ancient, mostly Second Temple –era works that are “outside” of the Jewish Bible. These had been written in the same period as the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, mostly in Hebrew, with a lesser number in Aramaic and even fewer in Greek. Our English versions are made from a Latin original EZRA or the \ESDRAS, THE SECOND (FOURTH) BOOK OF; APOCALYPTIC ESDRAS\. His version influenced the Vulgate, which follows Jerome's version closely. The books of the Old Testament Apocrypha, though they were not found in the Hebrew canon, were placed in his translation, by the Roman Catholic Church. Apocrypha definition, a group of 14 books, not considered canonical, included in the Septuagint and the Vulgate as part of the Old Testament, but usually omitted from Protestant editions of the Bible. From the Dead Sea Scrolls we know that Psalm 151, surviving in Greek, is actually a combination of two separate Psalms in Hebrew (sometimes called 151a and 151b). So Daniel 2:20 (Theod.) According to Bruce Metzger, the word deuterocanonical was a term coined in 1566 by the Roman Catholic Sixtus of Sienna. Moreover in the Apocrypha there are parts inconsistent with Protestant principles, as for example the doctrines of prayers for the dead, the intercession of the saints, etc. The word apocrypha, like many other words, has undergone a major change in meaning throughout the centuries. Yet Augustine (died 430; De Civitale Dei, XV, 23) explained the "apocrypha" as denoting obscurity of origin or authorship, and this sense of the word became the prevailing one in the West. The Hebrew for books definitely excluded from the canon is Cepharim chitsonim = "outside" or "extraneous books." There are also apocryphal letters (e.g.,3 Corinthians, Letter to the Laodiceans [cf. Affirming the immortality of the righteous and the eternal punishment of the wicked, the author seeks to demonstrate that inspired reason, guided by the Law, is supreme ruler over the passions. In addition to this he upheld the authority and value of esoterical books, Jewish, Christian, and even heathen. (4) In later patristic Greek (Irenaeus, etc.) First Maccabees, the longest and most detailed account, is an especially important historical source for the revolt. Both in its overall orientation and in many of its details, 2 Esdras contains a number of striking parallels to the Book of Revelation, with which it is contemporary. Inserted at strategic points, these clearly secondary additions, which include among other things prayers by Mordecai and Esther, serve to give a distinctively religious slant to the Book of Esther, otherwise noted for its failure to mention God or even prayer. 2 Esdras; III. It is said that Mohammed obtained his ideas of Christ entirely from these spurious gospels.--ED. These writings give intimations regarding the future, the ultimate triumph of the kingdom of God, etc., beyond, it was thought, human discovery and also beyond the intelligence of the uninitiated. The Protestant Reformers, while affirming the unique authority of the Hebrew canon, allowed that the books of the Apocrypha were useful for reading. The persons thus connected with these books are among the most distinguished in the traditions and history of Israel, and there can be no doubt that the object for which such names have been thus used is to add weight and authority to these writings. The books of the New Testament Apocrypha are thus given: (6) The Teaching of the Apostles (the Didache); (9) Epistles of Ignatius, Polycarp and Hermas. They have … The book also contains COLOR CODED text to aid the reader in understanding the true Hebrew meanings … The biblical apocrypha (from the Greek word ἀπόκρυφος meaning hidden) are books published in an edition of the Bible whose canonicity the publisher either rejects or doubts. But it is to the Reformers that we are indebted for the habit of using Apocrypha for a collection of books appended to the Old Testament and generally up to 1827 appended to every printed English Bible. None of the books can well belong to a date later than 100 AD, though some (2 Esdras, etc.) Protestants refer to these books as apocrypha (meaning spurious, hidden, obscure), but Catholics reject that phrasing. It will be remembered that Marcian (died end of 2nd century AD), Thomas Morgan, the Welsh 18th-century deist (died 1743) and Friedrich Schleiermacher (died 1834) taught this very same thing. where the apokrupha or hidden things are the meanings of Nebuchadnezzar's dream revealed to Daniel though "hidden" from the wise men of Babylon. (a) The verb ganaz of which the passive part. They are all of them apocalypses designated apocrypha in accordance with early usage. New Testament Apocrypha -- (A collection of legendary and spurious Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and Epistles. The term apocrypha refers most generically to statements or claims that are of dubious authenticity. Apocrypha. Over time, "apocrypha" took on a more negative connotation, due to the questionable origins and doubtful canonicity of these books. Agree x 1; List; Nov 9, 2020. What is interesting regarding this website is that it also condemns the use of the Apocrypha. Is it quite certain that there is no Hebrew word or expression corresponding exactly to the word "apocrypha" as first used by Christian writers, i.e. In the New Testament the word occurs but thrice, namely, Mark 4:22 and the parallel Luke 8:17; Colossians 2:3. Hebrew name meaning "complete, whole" or "honest." In this sense it takes the place of the classical Greek word esoterika and bears the same general meaning, namely, writings intended for an inner circle and cap. of apokruphos, secret, hidden, from apokruptein, to hide away : apo-, apo- + kruptein, kruph-, to hide.] But there are decisive reasons for rejecting this view. Prov 8:22-31 ) Wisdom, whom he identifies with the Law, and provides practical precepts for everyday living. noun apocrypha the 14 books included as an appendix to the Old Testament in the Septuagint and the Vulgate but not included in the Hebrew canon. The Infancy Gospel of Thomas narrates Jesus' childhood from age five to age twelve, with the child Jesus performing numerous miracles, sometimes to the point of absurdity (e.g., bringing clay sparrows to life). There are several modern translations, far the best being that in German edited by E. Kautzsch, containing Introductions, general and special, and valuable notes by the best German scholars. 5), the limitations of human understanding, the signs of the end, the final judgment, the intermediate state between death and the final judgment, the destruction of the Roman Empire, and the coming Messiah. What are the Apocrypha? What they did produce was explanatory of what had been written and practical. In patristic writings of an early period the adjective apokruphos came to be applied to Jewish and Christian writings containing secret knowledge about the future, etc., intelligible only to the small number of disciples who read them and for whom they were believed to be specially provided. These books were written not in Hebrew but in Greek, and during the "period of silence," from the time of Malachi, after which oracles and direct revelations from God ceased till the Christian era. An English critical edition of the Apocrypha edited by R. H. Charles, with introductory notes, is now being printed at Oxford and will be very valuable. They are good and worth reading. The eastern churches down to the present day reject the meaning of "apocrypha" current among Protestants (see definition above), and their Bible includes the Old Testament Apocrypha, making no distinction between it and the rest of the Bible. against the Greek tyrant Antiochus IV, who attempted to ban the practice of Judaism. It must be borne in mind that the word apocrypha is really a Greek adjective in the neuter plural, denoting strictly "things hidden." Clement of Alexandria (see above) recognized 4 (2) Esdras (to be hereafter called the Apocalypse of Ezra), the Assumption of Moses, etc., as fully canonical. They are not printed in Protestant versions of the Bible RC Church another name for the Pseudepigrapha The Song of the Three Holy Children, X. the so-called "Pseudepigraphical books.". esoteric. Though they are all from the time before the birth of Christ, they were never included in the Hebrew Bible. the Christian Old Testament), with one notable addition in the middle of chapter 4. Definition of Apocrypha in the Definitions.net dictionary. It divides sacred books into three classes: (1) The sixty canonical books. 3.5, 14). Meaning of Apocrypha. The word apocrypha was first used technically by early Christian writers for the Jewish and Christian writings usually classed under "Apocalyptic" (see APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE). And most detailed account, then click Continue meanings, which means `` things are... Meaning “ hidden ” or “ concealed ” the sixty canonical books. never them! Translation in paperback is based on the original 1611 King James version all... Reasons for rejecting this view of apocrypha meaning in hebrew decided an answer, and probably earlier! As genuine by Origen and other eastern Fathers books: first and second,. 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